Panama Metro Bus System and Metro Line 1: An externalities analysis of CO2 emissions spectre
Sanz Bobi, Juan de Dios
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In recent years there is has been a need to reduce traffic congestion with the objective of contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions or air pollution. This argument could be seen as a new tariff or tax to make society more aware and contribute to the care of the environment. Externalities are those effects of the production or consumption of some agents in order to producing or consuming others, for which no payment is made. In this sense, this paper presents some estimation of the socio-environmental externalities of the Metro Bus system and Panama Metro Line 1 for the years 2007, 2010 and 2015. These externalities correspond to variables such as: reducing of CO2 emissions and decreasing in the occupation of urban roads, among others. In others words, this paper presents an American Public Transportation Association (APTA) standards practical development about the C02 emissions estimation in Panama City.